HBS Unit 1 Review Sheet

Body Systems - (Activity 1.1.1 - Amazing Facts)

Integumentary System

    • Structures – skin; hair; nails
    • Function – protection

Nervous System

    • Structure – brain; spinal cord; nerves
    • Function – communication

Digestive System

    • Structure – oral cavity; esophagus; stomach; intestines 
    • Function – water and energy absorption; solid waste

Respiratory System

    • Structure – nasal passage; trachea; lungs; bronchi; aveoli
    • Function – gas exchange

Urinary System

    • Structure – kidney; ureter; bladder; urethra
    • Function – water absorption; liquid waste

Endocrine System

    • Structure – pituitary gland; adrenal gland; ovaries; testes
    • Function – hormone regulation; communication

Lymphatic & Immune System

    • Structure – lymph nodes; thymus; spleen; bone marrow
    • Function – filtration of toxins and waste; immunity

Skeletal System

    • Structure – bones; joints
    • Function – structure; protection

Muscular System

    • Structure – skeletal muscle; smooth muscle; cardiac muscle
    • Function – movement; heat

Cardiovascular System

    • Structure – heart; arteries; veins; capillaries
    • Function – circulate blood; gas exchange

Directional Terms - (Activity 1.1.2 - Orientation to the Maniken)

Directional Term Origin Meaning
Superior super- (latin) above Head is superior to the chest.
Inferior inferus (Latin)
low; below
Pelvis is inferior to the chest.
Ventral venter (Latin)
belly; underside Abdomen is on the ventral side of our body.

Dorsal dorsum (Latin)
back Spine is on the dorsal side of our body.
Anterior ante (Latin)
before; in front
Posterior post (Lain)
Superficial super- (Latin)
facies (Latin)
"above face"; outer surface
Skin is a superficial organ
Deep Below the skin are deep tissues.
rostrum (Latin)
break; toward the
Our forehead is rostral to the top of our head.
Cranial cranium (Latin)
kranion (Greek)

skull; towards the head
Cervical vertebrae are most cranial.
Caudal cauda (Latin)
tail; toward the
Tailbone is the most caudal vertebrae.
Lateral later- (Latin)
side; toward the
The sides of our body are lateral.
Medial medius (Latin)
middle; towards the
Sternum (brestbone) is medial
Proximal proximus (Latin)
nearest; closer to origin
The proximal forearm is closer to the elbow.
Distal dis- (Latin)

apart; further from origin

The distal forearm is closer to the wrist.

Regional Terms - (Activity 1.1.2 - Orientation to the Maniken)

Abdominal – abdomen
Antecubital – ventral elbow
Axillary – armpit
Brachial – upper arm (humerus)
Buccal – cheeck (zygomatic arch)
Calcaneal – heel
Carpal – small bones of wrist
Cephalic – head
Cervical – neck (cervical)
Coxal – hip (pelvis)
Digital – fingers/toes (phalanges)
Femoral – thigh (femur)
Gluteal – buttocks
Inguinal – groin
Lumbar – lower back
Nasal – Nose
Occipital – posterior base of skull
Olecranal – dorsal/posterior elbow
Oral – mouth
Orbital – eye
Patellar – knee cap
Pelvic – pelvis
Popliteal – posterior knee 
Sacral – fused vertebrae near hip
Scapular – shoulder blade
Sternal – breastbone
Tarsal – small bones of ankle
Thoracic – thorax; chest cavity
Umbilical – belly button
Vertebral – spine

regional terms

Epithelial Tissue - (Activity 1.2.1 - Identity of your Maniken)

Functions: covers organs/tissues; protection; secretion; diffusion.
Types: squamous; cubodial; columnar; transitional.
Examples: epidermis (outer layer of skin)


Author: Berkshire Community College  | License: CC0 1.0


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0



Muscle Tissue - (Activity 1.2.1 - Identity of your Maniken)

Functions: contraction; movement; temperature .regulation
Types: skeletal; cardiac, smooth.
Example: biceps (skeletal); heart (cardiac); muscle that lines arteries (smooth).


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0



Connective Tissue - (Activity 1.2.1 - Identity of your Maniken)

Functions: varies; support and connect other tissues; protection. 
Examples: blood; bone; adipose (fat); cartilage.



Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0


Author: Berkshire Community College | License: CC0 1.0

Nervous Tissue - (Activity 1.2.1 - Identity of your Maniken)

Functions: communication; coordination.
Examples: brain; spinal cord; nerves

Bones - (Activity 1.2.2 - Skeletal Scavenger Hunt)

Author: Mariana Ruiz Villarreal | License: Public Domain
    • Skull
    • Mandible
    • Clavicle
    • Sternum
      • Manubrium
      • Body
      • Xiphoid
    • Humerus
    • Scapula
    • Radius
    • Ulna
    • Carpals
    • Metacarpals
    • Phalanges
    • Pelvis
    • Femur
    • Patella
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
    • Tarsals
    • Metatarsals

Rib Cage

    • True
    • False
    • Floating


    • Cervical (7)
    • Thoracic (12)
    • Lumbar (5)
    • Sacrum (5 fused)
    • Coccyx (4 fused)

Axial Skeleton

Author: Mariana Ruiz Villarreal | License: Public Domain

Standard Curves - (Activity 1.2.4 - Estimating Height from Bones)

Example of a best-fit line.
Title: | Author: OpenStax | Published: OpenStax | License: CC BY 3.0

Linear Regression – Best Fit Line

    1.  A linear regression – or best-fit line – attempts to represent data points in a scatter plot as a representative trend.
    2. Equation: $y = mx + b$

$y$ = $y$ variable
$m$ = slope
$x$ = $x$ variable
$b$ = $y$ intercept

Examples of positive correlation, negative correlation and no correlation.
Title:  | Author: OpenStax | Published: OpenStax | License: CC BY 3.0

DNA Structure - (Activity 1.3.1 - DNA Detectives)

A phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar and a nitrogen base are all the components that make up a nucleotide. The organization of each structural component can be seen to the right.


Function: Nucleotides are marcomolecule-monomers that can be brought together to create a DNA polymer; they are the ‘building blocks’ of DNA.

DNA nucleotide with different colors for the phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar and nitrogen base.
Author: OpenStax | License: CC BY 4.0


      1. Double-ring structure
      2. Guanine base pairs with Cytosine
        • They share 3 hydrogen bonds
      3. Adenine base pairs with Thymine
        •  They share 2 hydrogen bonds


Purine Nitrogen Bases in DNA


      1. Single-ring structure
      2. Cytosine base pairs with Guanine 
          •  They share 3 hydrogen bonds
      3. Thymine base pairs with Adenine
          •  They share 2 hydrogen bonds


Pyrimidine Nitrogen Bases in DNA

Polymerase Chain Reaction - (Activity 1.3.1 - DNA Detectives)

Step 1 – Denaturation

  1. Raise the temperature.
  2. As a result, the hydrogen bonds in the DNA double strand break and the molecule separates into two separate DNA single strands. (Excuse the alliteration!)

Step 2 – Annealing

  1. Cool the temperature down a bit.
  2. This will allow primers to attach to complimentary sequences on each of the single stranded DNA.

Step 3 – Elongation

  1. Slightly raise the temperature
  2. Taq polymerase will interact with the DNA-primer complex and begin to add nucleotides to the 3′ end of the primer. These nucleotides will be complimentary to whatever nucleotides are on the DNA strand.
Polymerase chain reaction
Title: Polymerase Chain Reaction | Author: Enzoklop | Published: Wikimedia Commons | License: CC BY-SA 3.0

Restriction Enzymes - (Activity 1.3.1 - DNA Detectives)

Origin: Restriction enzymes are produced by bacteria to protect the bacterium from foreign, viral DNA.

Function: They recognize a short, specific nucleotide sequences and separate the DNA strands at precise locations.

Application: Scientists have isolated restriction enzymes from bacteria and used them for techniques like genetic cloning and gel electrophoresis.

Restriction enzyme BamHI cuts DNA
Title: BamHI | Author: Simon Caulton | Published: Wikimedia Commons | License: CC BY-SA 4.0

DNA Gel Electrophoresis - (Activity 1.3.1 - DNA Detectives)

: DNA gel electrophoresis attempts to separate DNA fragments according to the size of the fragments. 


Function: The DNA sample is loaded into the wells of the gel and a current is applied to the electrophoresis chamber which also contains a salt water buffer. The DNA is moves towards the positive electrode in response to an applied current. Larger DNA fragments move slower through the agarose molecules in the gel.


Application: Gel electrophoresis can be used to analyze and compare the RFLPs of an unknown genetic sample to known genetic samples. For example, DNA evidence at a crime scene can be compared to a series of potential suspects.


→ How to Analyze DNA using Gel Electrophoresis

DNA gel electrophoresis chamber setup.
Title: DNA Gel Electrophoresis| Author: Genome Research Limited | Published: yourgenome | License: CC BY 4.0

Biomterics - (Activity 1.3.3 - Biometrics: Who are you?)

  1. Clark MA, Douglas M, Choi J. “35.2 How Neurons Communicate.” Biology 2eOpenStax, https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/35-2-how-neurons-communicate. License: CC BY 4.0 License Terms: Edited & Adapted | Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/1-introduction.
  2. Clark, MA, Douglas M, Choi J. “Neurons and Glial Cells.” OpenStax, 28 Mar. 2018, https://openstax.org/books/biology-2e/pages/35-1-neurons-and-glial-cellsLicense: CC BY 4.0 License Terms: Edited & Adapted | Access for free at http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-9cbc-2cefd46e68cc@10.24.
  3. Young, KA., Wise, JA., DeSaix, P., Kruse, DH., Poe, B., Johnson, E., Johnson, JE., Korol, O., Betts, JG., & Womble, M. “File:1225 Chemical Synapse.jpg” Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1225_Chemical_Synapse.jpg License: CC BY 4.0
  4. Backyard Brains. “Patellar Reflex_web.jpg” Backyard Brains, License: CC BY-SA 3.0 License Terms: No edits were made.
  5. Betts, JG, Young KA, Wise JA, Johnson E, Poe B, Kruse DH, Korol O, Johnson JE, Womble M, DeSaix P. “The Endocrine Pancreas.” Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax, 2013. https://openstax.org/books/anatomy-and-physiology/pages/17-9-the-endocrine-pancreas. License: CC BY 4.0 License Terms: Edited & Adapted | Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/anatomy-and-physiology/pages/1-introduction.